Young Lives School Surveys, 2016-17: The Design and Development of Teacher Measures for Use in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam

Rhiannon Moore
School effectiveness
Technical notes
YL-TN44_1.pdf222.82 KB

This technical note provides background information on the design, selection, use and validation of a set of contextual measures at teacher and class levels which have been used in the Young Lives 2016-17 school surveys. These measures aim to provide data on teacher attitudes, professional knowledge, and classroom environment which can be used to explore how different teacher factors contribute to variation in student learning.

The note includes a discussion of the rationale for the inclusion of each of these measures, along with details of the process of developing the measures used in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam. It also includes a brief discussion of the initial validation of these measures, using data collected in the second wave of the school surveys in 2016-17.

Building on the design of the Young Lives primary school surveys between 2010-13, the 2016-17 school surveys examine school effectiveness at upper primary level in Ethiopia, and at secondary level in India and Vietnam. The surveys examine school effectiveness through multiple outcome measures, including students’ learning progress in mathematics and functional English. Background data collected from students, teachers and head teachers helps to contextualise the learning outcomes data.

 

Young Lives School Surveys 2016-17: Ethiopia Country Report

Jack Rossiter
Bridget Azubuike Caine Rolleston
School effectiveness
Country report
School Survey Report

This report gives an overview of the Young Lives school effectiveness survey conducted at the beginning and end of the 2016-17 (2009 E.C.) academic year. It provides a descriptive summary of the data collected from 12,182 students in Grade 7 and Grade 8, learning in 30 sites across seven of Ethiopia’s eleven regional states and city administrations.

The school effectiveness survey was designed to allow analysis of what shapes children's learning and progression over a school year. The data will allow researchers to understand, describe and explain school and education system effectiveness. The survey focuses on issues of attainment (e.g. progression and grade completion) and achievement (e.g. on the learning and other outcomes delivered by the school system) in a structure that links students to teachers, classrooms and schools.

ISBN 978-1-909403-96-3

 

Young Lives School Surveys 2016-17: Ethiopia Country Report

Jack Rossiter
Education
School effectiveness
Country report

This report gives an overview of the Young Lives school effectiveness survey conducted at the beginning and end of the 2016-17 (2009 E.C.) academic year. It provides a descriptive summary of the data collected from 12,182 students in Grade 7 and Grade 8, learning in 30 sites across seven of Ethiopia’s eleven regional states and city administrations.

The school effectiveness survey was designed to allow analysis of what shapes children's learning and progression over a school year. The data will allow researchers to understand, describe and explain school and education system effectiveness. The survey focuses on issues of attainment (e.g. progression and grade completion) and achievement (e.g. on the learning and other outcomes delivered by the school system) in a structure that links students to teachers, classrooms and schools.

ISBN 978-1-909403-96-3

 

Measuring learning quality in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam: from primary to secondary school effectiveness

Padmini Iyer
Education
School effectiveness
Journal Article

This paper examines the way in which learning quality has been conceptualised and measured in school effectiveness surveys conducted by Young Lives. Primary school surveys were conducted in Vietnam in 2010–11 and Ethiopia in 2012–13, and surveys at upper-primary and secondary level were conducted in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam in 2016–17. The paper discusses the design of cognitive tests to assess Maths and reading at primary level, and then focuses on the development of cognitive tests to assess Maths, functional English and transferable skills at upper-primary and secondary level. In particular, the paper explores how learning quality can be conceptualised and measured in relation to ‘twenty-first century skills’, which are increasingly seen as an important outcome of secondary education. The challenges of designing cognitive tests to measure and compare learning quality across three diverse country contexts are also explored.

Keywords:

Learning qualityschool effectivenessprimary educationsecondary educationtwenty-first century skills.

 

Download  Measuring learning quality in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam: from primary to secondary school effectiveness  Padmini Iyer and Rhiannon Moore.

School effectiveness in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam: Launch of Key findings from the 2016-17 Young Lives School Survey

University of Oxford

In 2016-17, Young Lives conducted school effectiveness surveys to examine the quality of learning outcomes at upper primary and secondary level in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam. At this event, the Young Lives Education team will share key findings on the variation in learning achievement within and between countries, and on the ‘value-added’ by different schools and school types in these countries. Particular attention will be given to cross-country findings on quality learning, enabled by the development of learning metrics designed to be both contextually relevant and internationally comparable. Initial findings from Young Lives’ most recent school survey in Peru, conducted in 2017, will also be presented.

Using unique evidence from the Young Lives school surveys, this event offers a space to discuss and debate key issues in global education, including the development of global learning metrics, addressing inequalities within education systems, the assessment of ‘21st century skills’ in low and middle-income countries, and the privatisation of education.

The event will be chaired by Professor Pauline Rose, director of the REAL Centre, and the discussant will be Lucy Crehan, consultant at Education Development Trust and author of ‘Cleverlands’. It will take place the day before the 2017 UKFIET conference on Learning and Teaching for Sustainable Development at New College, Holywell Street, Oxford, OX1 3BN.

Book now on our Eventbrite page.

Bridging the gaps: Diverse learning outcomes in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam

Caine Rolleston

Post by Caine Rolleston, Padmini Iyer, Rhiannon Moore, Jack Rossiter & Bridget Azubuike

Educational attainment is as much about where a child goes to school as her home advantage. School systems vary widely in effectiveness – yet there is more nuance in the picture when we examine the overlap between attainment distributions. Despite the large differences in resources and average attainment levels, there are students in Ethiopia whose attainment is as high as in Vietnam. This week, Young Lives has calibrated an internationally comparable test scale which will allow us to examine how school system effectiveness shapes learning across three countries.

Last year, Young Lives went back to school to conduct school effectiveness surveys in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana) and Vietnam. The first round of data collection, carried out at the beginning of the school year, is now complete in all three countries, and data collection at the end of the school year will be complete by July 2017. In each country, we went to schools in the Young Lives sites.  

Maths and English tests were administered to students in Grades 7 and 8 in Ethiopia, Grade 9 in India, and Grade 10 in Vietnam in each country. These are the grades in which we expected to find the majority of the Young Lives Younger Cohort children, who were born in 2001-2. On average, we found that students in the Ethiopia survey were 14.4 years old, 14 in India, and 15.4 in Vietnam. The slightly older age of the Vietnamese students in the survey is important to note when looking at findings from the survey, and we will control for this age gap in future analyses. 

This week, the Young Lives education team have been working together to examine preliminary trends from the Maths tests results from this unique cross-country education dataset. This blog post outlines some of our early findings.

Maths Performance by Country

A 40-item, multiple-choice Maths test was administered to students at the beginning of the school year[i]; 12 items on these tests were common to all three countries. This allowed us to link the Maths tests across the three countries; we put them on a common IRT scale, and fixed the mean at 500 and the standard deviation at 100 (we’ll be sharing country reports with details of methodology soon). The graph below shows the distribution of Maths test scores in the three countries.

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Educational Inequalities Among Children and Young People in Ethiopia

Tassew Woldehanna
Inequality
Education
School effectiveness
Country report

The Ethiopian education sector has been one of the most important pro-poor sectors in the country over recent years, with public education spending accounting for 21 per cent of total government spending, and to 4 per cent of GDP, in 2012/13. As the result of this, school enrolment (Grades 1-12) doubled from about 10 million students in 2002/3 to over 20 million in 2013/14. Coupled with the public educational expenditure, the government has also made a number of policy changes in different areas of the sector.

Yet, in spite of the unprecedented enrolment at all levels, the education sector still shows varying degrees of access for different groups, with nine out of ten children of appropriate age enrolled in primary education, two out of ten in secondary education, and only one out of ten at university.

This working paper analyses the educational inequalities that may exist among different groups of children and young people in Ethiopia using Young Lives longitudinal data collected over four rounds of surveys, for two cohorts of children born in 2001-02  and in 1994-95.

The paper’s findings are that overall, although the education system has expanded rapidly, affording access to millions of children who would not have had such an opportunity at the beginning of the Young Lives project in 2002, smooth progression and completion of general, further and higher education remain attainable by only the children of the rich, of educated mothers, of least vulnerable groups, of urban households, and in particular, those residing in Addis Ababa. Recent ‘remarkable’ progress in the sector came from a terribly low base and improvements should be lauded, but many gaps remain to be closed through equitable and inclusive educational policies. An important mechanism will be a revision of public education spending policies, to transfer funds from the higher- to lower-levels in the system; to the levels at which so many of the children from the lowest income quintile and with the least family support are still unable to move beyond.

The Design of the 2016-17 Young Lives School Survey in Ethiopia

Jack Rossiter
Education
School effectiveness
School systems (incl private schooling)
Methods
Survey design and sampling
Technical notes
YL-TN36.pdf151.31 KB

Young Lives school surveys gather detailed information about children, their households, their teachers and their schools. School surveys seek to develop understanding of the contribution of educational experience in relation to the causes and consequences of childhood poverty.

The first Ethiopia school survey, conducted in 2009/10, tracked Young Lives’ ‘Younger Cohort’ children into schools and classrooms to understand their educational experiences, attainment and achievement levels (Young Lives 2012).

A second school survey, in 2012/13, was structured to collect data relating to all Young Lives children and their peers studying in Grades 4 and 5 in every school within Young Lives’ 20 sites (in Amhara, Oromia, SNNP, Tigray and Addis Ababa) and in an additional 10 sites in Afar and Somali. This research design extended the survey’s reach, in order to generate rich evidence about school and classroom effectiveness and the drivers of learning (Young Lives 2014).

The third Ethiopia school survey, being delivered in 2016/17 and the focus of this design note, will follow the research design adopted in 2012/13. Young Lives will visit the same sites and, within these, the same schools and will maintain our interest in school effectiveness, the levels, changes and drivers of learning. The team will survey students in Grades 7 and 8: the final grades of primary schooling and a crucial juncture before students proceed to general secondary education.

Priority areas for upper primary and lower secondary education policy have been identified through consultation with the Government of Ethiopia’s Ministry of Education and with national and international education stakeholders. These guide our main research questions:

  • At what level are students performing in core curricular and transferable domains (Mathematics and Functional English) and are levels indicative of preparedness for further education and training?
  • How much progress are children making in one academic year and what are the drivers of learning trajectories over time, including how these relate to equity (e.g. are gaps growing or shrinking)?
  • What is the role of key dimensions of education quality in shaping educational outcomes over time and, in particular, which teacher practices are associated with improved learning outcomes?
  • What are the relationships between language of instruction (intended and applied), participation, learning levels and preparedness for further education and training in secondary grades?

This design note outlines the context and policy background, the research design, and the policy implications of the third Ethiopia school survey.

Education Trajectories in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood

Santiago Cueto
Education
School effectiveness
Trajectories
Policy paper

Sustainable Development Goal 4,  aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’  and includes both access and outcomes (learning) for all children. Monitoring to what level children reach these goals and what factors are associated with their progress is therefore an important research and policy issue.

In this policy brief, we describe the educational trajectories of 12,000 children across two cohorts: the Younger Cohort born around 1994 and the Older Cohort born around 2001, in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. The data come from Young Lives household and school surveys conducted over the last 15 years.

Researchers from each of these countries have a produced a report on the trajectories of these children since 2002, when we first started following them.

Here we integrate and summarise some of the main results, highlighting key messages and policy implications for each.

Our approach, based on the SDGs and other international instruments such as the UN Convention for the Rights of the Child, is that quality education is a public good and should be accessible to all children. In order to achieve fair and inclusive education, all students should have access to quality education, regardless of the circumstances and characteristics of children, such as ethnicity, gender, poverty, among others.

Our analysis includes equity as a key element, but goes beyond describing access and outcomes to also include the quality of school environments. Educational performance should depend on students’ effort and ability and not on their educational opportunities. Finally, we consider education as a key factor in the development of individuals, communities and nations, as it increases individual ́s skills, employment opportunities and social mobility, and improves economic growth.