Adolescent voices must shape policies designed to reduce early cohabitation in Peru.

As a researcher of Peruvian childhoods, I was invited to share insights from the Young Lives study in Peru at a recent conference on the international politics of child protection (held in Brazil). My particular contribution was to consider child rights and protection through the lens of adolescent girls’ experiences of cohabitation, informal unions and motherhood, based on a recent study in three Young Lives communities.[1]

A key theme throughout the conference was that children’s and adolescents’ voices remain marginalised in policy discussions.  My research shows that any policies that aim to reduce the levels of early cohabitation in Peru must be shaped by adolescents’ voiced experiences. A critical step to achieve this is to find more ways to empower adolescents – particularly girls – to have a stronger voice in their life choices.

There are many reasons why girls cohabit from young ages.

Latin America and the Caribbean is the only region worldwide where child marriage and early cohabitation is not decreasing (https://news.un.org/es/story/2018/04/1431011) and 23% of women aged 20 to 24 years old were married by age 18

Our interviews with adolescent girls in Peru suggest that to reduce the prevalence of early unions requires, first, understanding why girls choose these relationships, and second, providing girls with attractive better alternatives.

Our research points towards a complex web of reasons why girls may choose cohabitation and marriage from young ages.  These include: lack of social power within their family and intimate relationships; the desire to escape interpersonal and family violence; poor quality education; and poverty. 

Many girls search for protection and material security, but are often unprepared and vulnerable

Those girls who had married at younger ages tended to come from poorer households and from rural areas and to have already dropped out of school.  Many said they were attracted to cohabitation by the promise of protection, emotional security, care and financial support. 

“He helped me; he bought me things, shoes, dishes, and pots… He told me; I’m going to support you” (Young woman from Pangoa, Peru). 

The adolescent girls we spoke with told us that they had left their childhood home because they felt they had no say over decisions in their lives and they wanted to be free.  However, once cohabiting, they went on to experience oppressive relations with their partners, as in the example of Yolanda who started cohabiting with her boyfriend at age 16:

My father said that studying was not worthwhile for me, he said that I would not finish my studies because I would end up with a husband first.  He always told me that, so I quit my studies.  I met my partner, and we started living together. I was excited about it, I thought ‘I will finally make my own life’. But, my partner is a bit jealous.  Sometimes when I say “I want to go out”, he says, “No!”  I wanted to finish my studies, but that won’t happen now”.

The freedom that girls were looking for remained elusive, their lives in reality limited or controlled by their partners with whom they struggled to develop a healthy, balanced relationship.  Our study found that girls who started cohabiting at a very young age (14 years old) were particularly vulnerable to physical and psychological abuse, and to forced sexual relations. 

Schools are a crucial platform for intervening early on

At the conference in Brazil, discussions stressed the importance of investing in adolescent girls so that they are able to advocate for their rights across the life course. One essential space to build this capacity is in school.  The positive picture is that in Peru, the gender gap in access to education is small and more girls than ever are finishing their basic education.

However, our research suggests that this is not yet giving adolescent girls a strong enough voice over their life choices or domestic situations.  Early aspirations, acquired in part from being in school, are faltering as girls struggle to overcome unequal power relations within their households. 

What needs to be done?

Access to education is crucial for girls, but we need to go further.  In Peru, it is good that nowadays more girls are finishing basic education as is their right.  However, we need to ask: are they receiving what they need to imagine and realise a different life?

From the start of school, girls needs to be encouraged to question gender roles and stereotypes and to learn about sexual reproductive health within the framework of a rights –based approach. If girls who attend school receive an education that helps them to understand gender inequalities and that empowers them, they can probably recognise that being involved in a partner relationship is not the only way to change their lives.  Boys, young men and families, need to be included in this learning since girls along cannot shift the entrenched power relations that limit their life choices and their ability to exercise their rights.  Only then will levels of early cohabitation start to fall. 

As we approach the 30th Anniversary of the UN adoption of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, it is imperative that we step up action to ensure that children and adolescents are empowered to be resilient and to defend themselves against situations of any type of violence, but also to be in a better position to negotiate their life choices.

This is a snapshot of the findings from our research in Peru.  Our full country report on early cohabitation and parenthood in Peru will be published soon.  For updates, please follow up on @yloxford, @yMAPStudy, @NinosdelMilenio and on Facebook.

 

[1] The research was carried out as part of the multi-country Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS), a collaboration between Young Lives and Child Frontiers involving case studies from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia, funded from 2017-2020 by IDRC.

How does teenage marriage and motherhood affect the lives of young women in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam?

Kristine Briones
Catherine Porter
Adolescence and youth
Marriage and parenthood
Working paper

This working paper examines the characteristics of young women who have been married, cohabited, or given birth in their teenage years in four low - or middle -income countries; Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.  It finds that the rates of teen marriage are highest in India, but a high proportion of Peruvian girls are already cohabiting or mothers by the age of 19. The paper compares those who were married/cohabiting as teenagers with those who were not, at age 22, and finds that young women who were married/cohabiting in their teens are significantly less likely to have completed high school in all countries, and less likely to believe in equality between men and women, and score lower on measures of empowerment.  Some of these observed differences were apparent before their marriage, so it is difficult to make a causal attribution to the event of marrying, or to early life circumstances.  However, even conditional on other correlates, the probability of finishing high school is 15 - 25 per cent lower for teen-married women, and the fall in agency between ages 15 and 22 is significantly lower than for those who were not married young.  

This quantitative analysis complements qualitative findings from a companion study (Winter 2018), showing that lack of support for women who marry young exacerbates disadvantage from poverty and gender norms.  

How does teenage marriage and motherhood affect the lives of young women in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam?

Kristine Briones
Catherine Porter
Adolescence and youth
Marriage and parenthood
Working paper

This working paper examines the characteristics of young women who have been married, cohabited, or given birth in their teenage years in four low - or middle -income countries; Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.  It finds that the rates of teen marriage are highest in India, but a high proportion of Peruvian girls are already cohabiting or mothers by the age of 19. The paper compares those who were married/cohabiting as teenagers with those who were not, at age 22, and finds that young women who were married/cohabiting in their teens are significantly less likely to have completed high school in all countries, and less likely to believe in equality between men and women, and score lower on measures of empowerment.  Some of these observed differences were apparent before their marriage, so it is difficult to make a causal attribution to the event of marrying, or to early life circumstances.  However, even conditional on other correlates, the probability of finishing high school is 15 - 25 per cent lower for teen-married women, and the fall in agency between ages 15 and 22 is significantly lower than for those who were not married young.  

This quantitative analysis complements qualitative findings from a companion study (Winter 2018), showing that lack of support for women who marry young exacerbates disadvantage from poverty and gender norms.  

From Childhood, through Adolescence to Adulthood in Ethiopia.

Since 2001, Young Lives has followed the lives of 3,000 children growing up in different contexts in Ethiopia, involving a younger cohort born in 2001-2 and an older cohort born in 1994-5. The younger cohort of children are now moving from adolescence into adulthood, while the older cohort have already become young adults. Young Lives has interviewed the children, their caregivers and community respondents over five rounds of surveys and four qualitative waves in 20 sites in five different regions.

So, what have we learnt about the lives of children over the years? And how can this information be useful for improving policies and programmes in Ethiopia? What are the differences for girls and boys, for children from urban and rural areas, and how have different household circumstances affected their life chances? When we return to interview them during this new fifth wave of qualitative research in mid- 2019, what will have changed? Where are they heading to now and what are their hopes and aspirations for the future?

The new fieldwork, supported by UNICEF, will be implemented in different urban and rural locations of Ethiopia and will compare the younger group who are still in late adolescence with the older group who are already adults. Findings will be able to illustrate different pathways for boys and girls from contrasting family backgrounds living in various settings. This will provide key insights into a range of important topics including transitions from school to work, migration, household formation, marriage and parenting and the different challenges children and youth face in contexts of food insecurity.

The new findings will inform Government policies on children and youth, feed into the evaluation of the current Growth and Transformation Plan and provide inputs into preparations for the next plan. The research will also inform UNICEF Ethiopia’s new Country Programme and other development partners’ plans to support the Government to prioritise children’s and youth issues in the journey to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and Ethiopia’s efforts to attain lower middle-income status.

This new study will also allow Young Lives to further analyse the key findings from across 15 years of research to draw out key lessons into a series of short policy briefs.

The first brief will provide an overview across different areas of children’s lives. UNICEF has demonstrated that child poverty is multi-dimensional and that monetary indicators fail to convey the true depth of deprivations. The Young Lives study confirms this, and our findings address issues in various domains including poverty dynamics, nutrition, health and cognitive development, education and learning, wellbeing and child protection. This brief will include the 12 key messages highlighted in the Young Lives Ethiopia Country Report.

We then focus on four specific topics of policy concern through the development of additional policy briefs. First, we look at child marriage. Though the rate of child marriage is fortunately on the decrease in Ethiopia, it remains a major issue as the absolute number of girls affected is increasing, and little is known about what happens to girls who marry early or their offspring. We will synthesise findings from Young Lives about how early marriage and parenthood affects their lives, especially their education and work opportunities, their relations with their spouse and family and their scope for decision-making, notably about having children.

Second, violence is an area where children need further protection. Children of different ages, especially girls, face a range of risks including physical, emotional and sexual violence in their homes and communities and at school. We investigate where and why this happens, how children and adults respond, the services available and how they can be improved.

Third, we analyse early childhood care and education. How were children treated in early life and what effect has this had on their later development and chances? Young Lives reviewed current pre-school provision in Ethiopia and will use this to compare it with the experiences of the children we have been following. The new fieldwork will investigate how the Young Lives children, who are now adults, parent their own children; we will therefore be able to compare early education and care over three generations: the parents of the Young Lives children, the children who have become parents themselves and their own children.

Finally, we analyse the phase of adolescence and the struggles girls and boys face at this crucial age of transition as they seek to become independent, earn a living and form their own households and families.

The results of this research will be disseminated through briefs presented and distributed at the monthly seminar series of the Child Research and Practice Forum at the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth and at events on key international days relating to children and youth.

For wider coverage the briefs will be posted on the Young Lives and UNICEF websites, translated into Amharic to better reach a national audience and will be promoted through social media. The preliminary results of the new field research and the final versions of the briefs will be presented at a validation workshop at the end of 2019 and will provide important data for further analysis leading to insights useful for policy engagement in 2020, when Young Lives hopes to carry out a sixth survey.

This study is being undertaken by Oxford University and the Young Lives Project under the Policy Study Institute of Ethiopia. Members of the Reference Group include MoWCY, MoLSA, MOE, Save the Children, Child Justice Project, Consortium of Christian Relief & Development Associations and Addis Ababa University.

UNICEF will support financially the development of five different policy briefs using existing Young Lives’ data and the undertaking of the new qualitative wave of the Young Lives study.

 

Early reflections on findings from the Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS)

The Young Marriage and Parenthood (YMAPS) research team, jointly run by Young Lives and Child Frontiers, met recently in Lima, Peru, to share new findings about adolescents’ experiences of marriage, co-habitation, divorce or parenthood.

This blog sets out some early reflections from the Young Lives communications team on the evidence we heard, paving the way for more detailed blogs on specific findings and research outputs to be published from across our country teams over the coming months. 

Background to the study

YMAPS is investigating aspects of young marriage and parenthood that have received limited attention from international development policy and research to date. For example, whilst the reasons behind early marriage are well researched, less is known about what life is actually like for adolescents, particularly boys, once they are married, cohabiting, divorced and/or parents. Less is also known about the intergenerational aspects of adolescent marriage and parenthood.

The young people interviewed in this study live across a range of urban, peri-urban and rural locations and are drawn from the Young Lives/Niños del Milenio study samples in Ethiopia, India and Peru and a sample of adolescents from the Child Frontiers study in Zambia.

The findings

Young people are not only experiencing the formal union of early marriage, but many also cohabit informally, something that we had not anticipated.  Moreover, marriage and co-habitation is established in lots of different ways across – and within – the study countries.  In India, for example, adolescents’ unions still come about mostly through arranged marriages. But in the other study countries, it is a more complex picture.  Unions are established through various routes which include friendship; sexual relations; pregnancy; elopements; a girl sleeping at a man’s house; marriage payments between families (bride-wealth, dowry or gifts) and more.  Some relationships remain informal, others move on, sometimes with elders’ interventions, to more formal marriages. 

Despite these different contexts, we were struck by the many similarities in their experiences and challenges they faced.

Lost dreams and regrets; but parenthood joy

Most of the adolescents in this study had at one time attended school and had had dreams of a better future. But the complex pressures of poverty, unequal gender roles, domestic violence, social expectations and family demands, often led to relationships and roles in which they felt unable to realise those dreams.  Many adolescents expressed regret about their situation because they were struggling to become the person they thought they would be.  Some said they were unhappy and declared that parenthood alone brought them joy. 

Few options for girls living in rural, impoverished circumstances

For some, an early marriage or co-habitation was a romantic choice. But for many young girls early marriage is seen as the only way to get out of poverty: “He helped me; he bought me clothes, shoes, dishes, pans (…) he told me: you are not going to have any problems, I am going to support you and I will look after you” (adolescent girl, Peru).

Perpetuating young marriage and parenthood – the role of families

We didn’t hear anyone say that they wanted girls and boys to marry young. But at the same time, families sometimes took action to bring about early marriage because of financial and social pressures.  

Few adolescents have access to information about birth control in school and consequently there are many pregnancies. Abortion is not a popular choice because though legal in Ethiopia, India and Zambia it is difficult to access and often considered unsafe. Therefore, to avoid the stigma of an unmarried, pregnant daughter, families often pressure young people to marry.  Boys are expected to leave school and assume financial responsibilities: “I had to stop my education at grade nine and marry her. I was forced to live with her actually. I approached her just to have fun, but unfortunately it ended in marriage” (A young divorced man in Ethiopia describes his marriage when his girlfriend became pregnant).

Traditional gender roles in marriage and co-habitation

For many, life in an early marriage holds few opportunities other than to fulfil traditional gender roles, often to the disadvantage of adolescent girls who have little say over significant household decisions: “She is in charge of her pots, her things and I am in charge of my cars” (adolescent boy, Peru).  In some locations they couldn’t even determine their own fertility: “If a man wants children, the women must give birth as many times as her husband wants; otherwise they are divorced” (group of adolescent girls in Ethiopia).  Families can again be complicit in perpetuating inequalities: “I advise my niece, if you have a husband you have to serve him” (an adult woman in a focus group discussion in Peru).

Escape from violence – only to encounter more

Many adolescent girls had experienced domestic violence before entering into early marriage or cohabitation.  They described how they hoped they would escape violent (childhood) homes by getting married. Yet many went on to suffer violence in their new homes: “I used to be beaten. He was just fine when we were dating but when we got married, we would be fine one day and be fighting the next” (a divorced girl from Zambia).

What about the boys?

Finding adolescent boys willing to participate in the study was challenging and they were often more reluctant than girls to share their experiences. From those interviewed, we heard some describe their relationship or parenthood in positive terms but many others felt trapped or overwhelmed by new responsibilities. 

Overall, we felt girls and boys were often entering early relationships, marriages and parenthood completely unprepared. Consequently, they really struggle to negotiate new roles, often with significant negative consequences for both: “It is not good. Marriage needs age. When you marry while you are young you don’t know what to do” (divorced boy, Ethiopia).

What’s next?

An important outcome from this research will be to better understand how young people can be supported in their married (including cohabitation) and parental roles and responsibilities. The team will draw on the voices of young people themselves to develop new policy recommendations over the coming months, which will be published in specific country reports, alongside a comparative report to synthesis country findings.  The communications team will work to ensure these messages are widely disseminated for greatest impact on related policies and programmes, and welcome blog readers’ thoughts and comments.  To hear more about the initial findings watch this video here, for more on Young Lives gender and adolescent findings visit the website here and  for updates from Young Lives please follow us on Twitter @yloxford @yMAPStudy

Understanding Child Marriage: Insights from Comparative Research

Marriage and parenthood
Policy paper

This is the first policy brief produced by the Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS), looking at research findings from Young Lives (Ethiopia, Peru, Vietnam and
the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana) and Child Frontiers (Zambia). The study uses longitudinal surveys and qualitative research.
 

The Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS) – One Year On

This October will mark one year into the comparative Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS) that brings together research from Young Lives (Ethiopia, Peru and the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in India) and Child Frontiers (Zambia) to generate new evidence about what it is like to be an adolescent or young person who is married, in an informal union or a young parent in these settings. 

We did not begin the study with the acronym YMAPS and it took some time to finally decide on the project name. The geographical reference and ‘maps’ metaphor is intentional: firstly, the study aims to understand the life pathways of young people with respect to marriage and parenthood and secondly, we are interested in comparing young people’s experiences across different geographical contexts.

We take this opportunity to launch the first YMAPS policy brief ‘Understanding child marriage: the contribution of longitudinal and comparative research’ highlighting findings from Young Lives and Child Frontiers’ earlier research on child marriage. The brief serves as a springboard into the next step for YMAPS research looking into the consequences of child marriage. A major activity in the project’s first phase was to review the national and international academic and policy debates and to reach out to key stakeholders to help us identify knowledge gaps and where YMAPS might add value.

Last February, country teams reported back on their findings during the first YMAPS project meeting hosted by Young Lives in Oxford, bringing together team members from Addis Ababa, Delhi, Lima, Lusaka, Ottawa, Oxford and Tirupati, and representatives from IDRC (the project funder).  

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The Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS) – One Year On

October marked one year into the comparative Young Marriage and Parenthood Study (YMAPS) that brings together research from Young Lives (Ethiopia, Peru and the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in India) and Child Frontiers (Zambia) to generate new evidence about what it is like to be an adolescent or young person who is married, in an informal union or a young parent in these settings. 

We did not begin the study with the acronym YMAPS and it took some time to finally decide on the project name. The geographical reference and ‘maps’ metaphor is intentional: firstly, the study aims to understand the life pathways of young people with respect to marriage and parenthood and secondly, we are interested in comparing young people’s experiences across different geographical contexts.

We take this opportunity to launch the first YMAPS policy brief ‘Understanding child marriage: Insights from comparative research’, highlighting findings from Young Lives and Child Frontiers’ earlier research on child marriage. The brief serves as a springboard into the next step for YMAPS research looking into the consequences of child marriage. A major activity in the project’s first phase was to review the national and international academic and policy debates and to reach out to key stakeholders to help us identify knowledge gaps and where YMAPS might add value.

Last February, country teams reported back on their findings during the first YMAPS project meeting hosted by Young Lives in Oxford, bringing together team members from Addis Ababa, Delhi, Lima, Lusaka, Ottawa, Oxford and Tirupati, and representatives from IDRC (the project funder).  

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Team photo taken during inception meeting

Beyond prevention to understand the needs, experiences and aspirations of married girls and boys

Our reviews found that there is more evidence than ever on the drivers and predictors of child marriage, but there is much less evidence of policy, interventions and research focused on married girls and young women, couples and young parents, especially in the early years of marital life. Less still is known about cohabitation and other forms of union. The tendency to focus on individual girls and young women has meant that the experiences of boys and young men are marginal. Longitudinal data is lacking on the intergenerational impacts of adolescent marriage and parenthood. Moreover, we found that not enough consideration is given to the structural and contextual influences (urbanisation, migration, low levels of formal employment, climate change, food insecurity, etc.) affecting child marriage.

Fieldwork! Talking to married girls, boys, couples and young parents

Following the project meeting, we began to design the qualitative research tools in earnest ahead of the first fieldwork beginning earlier in the summer. New data collection is underway in Ethiopia, Peru and Zambia – working in one rural, urban, and peri-urban community in each country. In addition to looking into experiences of early marital life, we are gathering data on the joys and challenges of young motherhood and fatherhood, and whether their fertility outcomes match their earlier preferences and why. Findings from each country will be synthesised in a comparative report due out late 2019 and will include findings from a recent study undertaken by Young Lives in India (see report).

Child marriage does not look the same in different contexts

YMAPS is fortunate to tap into its comparative advantage, including four countries across three continents. There are striking differences between and within countries: for example, there appear to be more unions between adolescent girls and adolescent boys, and more examples of pregnancy before marriage and cohabitation in Zambia and Peru; a predominance of traditional arranged marriages in India, and a combination of arranged marriages, peer relationships and elopement in Ethiopia. As described in the policy brief, the transition to marital life is often difficult for adolescent girls and young women; there are few services designed to meet their sexual and reproductive, study and training, or social support needs.

The policy concerns differ too. In Peru the discourse is framed around ‘teenage pregnancy’ since young people tend to be in informal unions rather than formal marriages, whereas in the other three countries, early, forced and child marriages are the policy concern. Across these contexts, we are discovering great diversity in young people’s actual experiences. 

Looking ahead and staying in touch

Draft country reports will be available early 2019, and in the meantime, readers can look forward to learning more about what is coming out of the research through monthly blogs, including reflections from local fieldworkers. The best way to stay on top of developments within the study is to follow us on Twitter (@yMAPStudy) and to check the Young Lives website which hosts the YMAPS project. We will be posting information in due course about YMAPS global symposium on young marriage and parenthood which the Ethiopian Centre for Child Research (ECCR) will host in Addis Ababa in early 2020.

 

What does 'bargaining power' mean to young married rural women in Ethiopia?

I notice that in the lead-up to this year’s International Women’s Day, a popular hashtag on social media is #SheDecides. This is clearly linked to campaigning for women’s decisions around family planning but of course goes beyond that be a rallying call for funding and enabling those choices. It reminded me that though clearly decision-making at a global level has a huge impact on women’s lives and opportunities, so too does decision-making at the most local level: one’s own home. I’ve recently written about this most personal level of #SheDecides - ‘bargaining power’.   

In 2014, Ethiopia ranked 129 out 188 countries in the Gender Inequality Index. This is despite the government’s commitment to improve the social standing of girls and women, and the considerable number of programmes targeting different aspects of gender inequality, from early marriage to women’s job creation, as well as attempts to change local cultural belief systems.

One concept that has been used to understand gender inequality, primarily from the field of economics, is that of ‘bargaining power’. Bargaining power is explained as negotiations between members of a household to arrive at decisions regarding the household unit. The basic premise is that men and women have different roles and priorities when it comes to household decision-making, and that decisions are made through a bargaining process in which household members each attempt to use the resources they have to achieve their desired ends.

Bargaining power’ matters.

Bargaining power could be argued to be a domestic issue – what happens behind the family door, between a wife and husband. But policymakers care about the bargaining power of women because of its direct correlation with different life outcomes. It is not enough to provide women with access to opportunities, services, or information, if they are powerless to act due to social and economic constraints. Increased bargaining power has been correlated with better outcomes in terms of health and education, and of the clothing of children and other members of the household. It has also been shown that women who wield greater influence in household decisions can greatly improve their children’s nutritional status.

My new working paper examines the ‘bargaining power’ of young married Ethiopian women within their marriage and their household. The paper is based on interviews with a group of young women, now in their early 20s who participated in the Young Lives longitudinal qualitative research over a seven-year period (from 2007 to 2014) spanning pre- and post-marriage, and for some of them, pre- and post-childbirth. By age 19, one in six young women in the Young Lives sample were married. I examined the changes in their bargaining power by comparing their experiences before and after marriage.

Young Women’s Household Bargaining Power in Marriage and Parenthood in Ethiopia

Nardos Chuta
Gender
Transitions
Marriage and parenthood
Working paper

This working paper examines the factors that affect the bargaining power of young married women in marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, where power structures remain overwhelmingly male-dominated and patriarchal. It draws on longitudinal qualitative data and survey information collected by Young Lives with children, young people and their families between 2007 and 2015. The paper’s main focus is young women’s changing relations and analysis of their ‘bargaining power’ before and after marriage. The concept of bargaining power has been used to understand gender inequality, primarily from the field of economics, but this mainly qualitative paper takes bargaining power to mean the negotiating capacity of young married women within their marital relationships and households.

The paper argues that intra-household, social-institutional and individual factors intertwine to shape young women’s agency towards bargaining power in differing areas of their lives. Generally, factors such as urban or rural residence, education, standard of living, customs and norms combine to shape the bargaining power of young women in marriage. Decisions are usually made at a collective level, whereas agency at the individual level is often very shallow.

The paper recommends that policies and programmes targeted towards reducing gender inequality at intra-household level have to consider the wider contexts in which those households are situated, such as how cultural beliefs and norms shape marital practices, gender and generational relations, and decision-making more broadly.